6.1 - Speed-Velocity.pdf

January 11, 2019 | Author: sunlias | Category: Velocity, Speed, Euclidean Vector, Acceleration, Physical Quantities
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Motion How fast is fast?

Motion 

Motion – change in position relative to a reference point. 

Frame of reference – a system used to identify the precise location of an object

Distance vs. Displacement 

Distance: How far an

object has moved.





SI unit = meter 



“Total steps taken” 

Total Displacement:

The distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point 

Displacement includes direction



“How far are we from where we started?” 

Distance vs. Displacement

Wait… there is direction?!?!? 

Scalar  – quantity that is described by only a magnitude (a number) 



Ex: 10m/s, 8m, 38degC, 27 watts

Vector – quantity that is described by both magnitude AND direction 

Ex: 10m/s south, 8m upward, 9.8m/s 2 to the ground

Vectors 

Distance is a Scalar  (Just a number)



Displacement is a Vector  (A Number and A Direction)

The image to the right shows vector addition (multiple vectors). We will deal with this in a bit. 

The arrow length indicates the magnitude of velocity 



Vector Video!!!

Vector Terms 

Part without arrow is “head” of vector 



Part with arrow is “tail” of vector 



When adding vectors, we always put them “head-to-tail” for as many vectors as we have



The “resultant vector” is the result of your vector addition, and it is ALWAYS drawn from the head of the first vector to the tail of the last vector 

Vector Addition 

Because velocities (and vectors) include magnitude AND direction, combining two vectors depends on their directions and signs 

Can occur in a single plane



Can occur perpendicular (at a right angle) to each other 

Vector Addition continued (HONORS) 

For vectors at right angles to each other, we use the Pythagorean theorem to find the resultant vector: 

a2 + b2 = r 2



“a” is magnitude of first vector



“b” is magnitude of second vector 



“r” is magnitude of resultant vector 



Direction of resultant vector comes from looking at the directions of “a” and “b”

Vector Addition Practice 

Find the resultant vector when adding 5m north and 22m south. +

=

17m south

Vector Addn Practice (HONORS) 

Find the resultant vector when adding 35km south and 50km west. +

=



a2 + b2 = r 2



(35km)2 + (50km)2 = r 2



r = 61.03 SOUTHWEST (south + west)

Scalar vs Vector  



Scalar (Just a number) 

Distance



Speed

Vector (A Number and A Direction) 

Displacement



Velocity

Speed and Velocity 

Speed – how fast an object is moving 



Does NOT include a direction

Velocity – rate at which an object changes it’s position 



Basically, it is how long it takes an object to get from point A to point B Includes both magnitude AND direction

Speed vs. Velocity 

Speed – distance / time 

Simply the magnitude of Velocity 



Velocity – displacement / time 

Speed WITH a direction 



S = d/t

V = d/t

SI Units for:   

Distance+Displacement = meters (m) Time = seconds (s) Speed+Velocity = meters/second (m/s)

More Velocity 

Notice speed has no + or – 

Velocity however, can be + or – magnitudes. That indicates a direction

 A vector is a quantity with a direction



 

Positive velocity is right and up Negative velocity is left and down

Two Kinds of Velocity We will almost ALWAYS calculate average velocity 

Average Velocity: total distance traveled divided by the total time 



Ex: velocity on trip from Chas to Orlando

Instantaneous Velocity: velocity at a specific instant

Practice What is the speed of a commercial jet which travels from New York City to Los  Angeles (4800 km) in 6 hours?





What would the velocity be? 

800 km/hr WEST

More Practice



What is the speed of a bike that travels 355 meters in 103.7 seconds?



What would the velocity be? 

3.42 m/s DOWNHILL

 And Even More Practice!

 A train travels 100 km/hr for 2 hours. What distance has it traveled?



S = d/t 100km/hr = d / 2hrs 200km = d

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